An insight into pathophysiological features and therapeutic advances on ependymoma
Authors: Seung Hee Seo, Shamrat Kumar Paul, Mita Shikder, Mushira Khanam, Popy Ghosh, Tasnin Al Hasib, Kazi Ahsan Ahmed, Suranjana Sikdar, Md Jamal Uddin*, Youngjoo Kwon*
Abstract: Glial cells comprise the non-sensory parts of the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system. Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, constitute a significant portion of the mammalian nervous system and can be viewed simply as a matrix of neural cells. Despite being the “Nervenkitt” or “glue of the nerves”, they aptly serve multiple roles, including neuron repair, myelin sheath formation, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Ependymal cells are one of four kinds of glial cells that exert distinct functions. Tumorigenesis of a glial cell is termed a glioma, and in the case of an ependymal cell, it is called an ependymoma. Among the various gliomas, an ependymoma in children is one of the more challenging brain tumors to cure. Children are afflicted more severely by ependymal tumors than adults. It has appeared from several surveys that ependymoma comprises approximately six to ten percent of all tumors in children. Presently, the surgical removal of the tumor is considered a standard treatment for ependymomas. It has been conspicuously evident that a combination of irradiation therapy and surgery is much more efficacious in treating ependymomas. The main purpose of this review is to present the importance of both a deep understanding and ongoing research into histopathological features and prognoses of ependymomas to ensure that effective diagnostic methods and treatments can be developed.