Food-derived bioactive peptides: a promising substitute to chemosynthetic drugs against the dysregulated renin-angiotensin system in COVID-19 patients
Authors: A.G.M. Sofi Uddin Mahamud, Md. Ehsanul Kabir, Abdullah Al Mamun Sohag, Chong Chen, Md. Abdul Hannan, Mahmudul Hasan Sikder, Keshab Bhattarai, Bikash Baral*, Md Jamal Uddin*.
Abstract: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The viral infection dysregulates the functions of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), leading to an upregulated level of Angiotensin II (Ang II) in blood plasma. The enhanced level of Ang II may contribute to various pathophysiological events, including vasoconstriction, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, beta-cell dysfunction, and many others. These phenomena are associated with developing multiple chronic diseases, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lung disease, renal disease, and many other comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute to severe conditions and higher mortality in COVID-19 patients with underlying comorbidities. Several synthetic drugs, especially RAS blockades, are currently prescribed to COVID-19 patients to minimize the severity of these comorbidities by limiting the deleterious effects of Ang II. However, these chemosynthetic drugs are limited by several side effects such as persistent cough, fetal abnormalities, hepatic disorder as well as promotion in the occurrence of new chronic diseases. These drawbacks raise an investigation to explore comparatively safe alternatives for COVID-19 patients. From this point of view, we have anticipated that applications of multifunctional food-derived bioactive peptides could be a promising approach through their preventive and therapeutic actions against underlying chronic complications in COVID-19 patients. This review enlightened the disease preventive and immunomodulatory effects of food-derived bioactive peptides that may enhance the survivability and vitality of COVID-19 patients with chronic complications.